The Indian Council of Social Science Research, the premier organization for social science research in India, conducts periodic surveys in the major disciplines of the social sciences to assess disciplinary developments as well as to identify gaps in research in these disciplines. Sociology and Social Anthropology in India represents the fourth round of surveys covering the period since 1988. It analyses the intellectual history of sociology and social anthropology in India. The survey begins with an examination of the historical background of tribes, rural and agrarian studies, political sociology, and urban sociology. It proceeds to study the role of caste and caste organizations in local and national politics, the organizational structure of industries, the journey of women's studies in India since its inception in the 1970s, the demographic trends in India since 1971, and the socio-cultural and political dynamics of the Indian diaspora. Finally, the survey provides a detailed analysis of criminological and development studies, and the notable and sociologically relevant aspects of the emergent legal culture in India.